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Unemployment Problem Essay
Honourable President, my dear teachers, guests and students Assalam-o-Alaikum.
Of the many economic and political problems that the country faces today, the problem of unemployment is probably the most serious. In fact, it lies at the root of our economic and social backwardness. One great defect of an agricultural economy is that its scope for expansion and development is very limited. The tremendous increase in population is much more than what agriculture can absorb. Absence of sufficient industries and others avenues of employment to absorb the excess population results in a vast number of people going without any positive kind of employment. This is known as the problem of unemployment.
It is hardly necessary to dwell upon the evils of unemployment in a country. People in need of food, shelter and clothing and without any positive source of income, turn into undesirable elements in society. They take to antisocial and unhealthy habits and thus corrupt the society. Lack of any useful means of occupation breeds listlessness and discontent. These discontented elements are easily swapped by passions and emotions and become an easy prey to anti national and subversive elements and thus constitute a serious danger to society and to the country. Unemployment also breeds corruption and dishonesty. It is unwise to expect honesty from a man who does not provide the bare minimum of life for himself and his family. If the malady of unemployment is allowed to continue for long, it might ultimately lead to destructive evolution or any other serious chaos.
The seriousness and magnitude of the problem can be judged from the figure published from time to time by Employment Exchanges. The huge number of candidates that apply for jobs and the unemployed vagrants roam about the streets at all hours of the day and night. The problem is equally serious among the educated as also among the uneducated rural people. The number of students going in for education is increasing everyday but not all of them find suitable employment. In the rural areas, the limited capacity of land cannot absorb the rapidly increasing number of people and in the absence of suitable alternatives of employment. I am a huge host of agriculturalists and labourers who remain unemployed. The magnitude of this problem instead of decreasing is steadily on the increase.
The unemployment problem can be attributed to a number of causes. First, the growth of population is much greater and rapid that our present economy cannot support. Secondly, each agricultural expansion, adherence to old and antiquated methods of cultivation, and the prevalence of orthodox ideas in the villages is another serious cause. Thirdly, absence of sufficient industries promotes unemployment. Fourthly, the theoretical and academic education system does not train our young men to make practical use of their knowledge and thus they are unfit for the existing avenues of employment.
One of the first measures to reduce unemployment is to check the growth of population. It is a law of economics that population grows in arithmetical progression and while economic resources develop in geometric progression and cannot keep pace with the growth of population. However hard we might try to promote industries to develop agriculture, and to create new avenues of unemployment we shall not be able to cope successfully with the increasing number of people in search of employment. Control of population must find first place any planned scheme of reducing unemployment.
Of the various other remedies available for tackling the problem, industrialization is the most useful. No other method opens avenues for employment so widely and in such large numbers as industrialization. The amount of industrialization that has taken place in the country has successfully provided employment to a good number of people. With greater industrialization greater opportunities of employment will be opened up. The Five Year Plan of Pakistan aims to increase the opportunities for useful employment in the country.
Industrialization does not only mean the establishment of heavy industries. Development of cottage industries also occupies an important place In any scheme of industrialization. The Five Year Plan aims also at the improvement and promotion of cottage industries. Development of cottage industries will provide a profItable occupation to agriculturalists during their free periods to the vast body of the idle.
A change in the overall educational system will also go a long way in checking the evils of unemployment.
Greater opportunities for vocational and technical education will train the student in special professions and it will be easier for him to find suitable employment with his technical and vocational training rather than mere academic knowledge. Promotion of mechanization in agriculture will lead to greater productivity. It will require greater labour and a vast number of trained personnel. And the improved villages of the future will attract a large number of people now moving around the streets of the town in search of employment.
There are a vast number of other useful methods of reducing the menace of unemployment. They must all be mobilised to kill the monster of unemployment and all avenues of gainful employment must be explored.